Al Wattar, B.H., J. Dodds, A. Placzek, E. Spyreli, A. Moore, R. Hooper, L. Beresford, T.J. Roseboom, M. Bes-Rastrollo, G. Hitman, K.S. Khan, S. Thangaratinam; ESTEEM study group, 2016. Effect of simple, targeted diet in pregnant women with metabolic risk factors on maternal and fetal outcomes (ESTEEM): study protocol for a pragmatic multicentre randomised trial. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e013495. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016013495.
Introduction: Women with metabolic risk factors are at higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mediterranean-based dietary interventions have the potential to minimise these risks. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of a simple, targeted intervention modelled on Mediterranean diet in preventing maternal and fetal complications in pregnant women with metabolic risk factors. Methods and Analysis: Pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy <18 weeks gestation, and without pre-existing diabetes, chronic renal disease and autoimmune diseases will be recruited. Women with metabolic risk factors will be randomised to receive a dietary intervention based on a Mediterranean pattern, supplemented with extra virgin olive oil and mixed nuts until delivery. The intervention will be delivered through a series of one to one and group sessions. The primary outcome is a composite maternal outcome of pre-eclampsia or gestational diabetes and a composite fetal outcome of stillbirth, small for gestational age fetus or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Secondary outcomes include maternal, fetal, dietary and laboratory outcomes. We aim to randomise 1230 eligible women with metabolic risk factors. We will also compare the outcomes in women with and without these risk factors. The sample size will provide us with 80% power at 5% significance, assuming a 20% loss to follow-up to detect a 30% reduction in maternal and fetal complications. Ethics and Dissemination: The ESTEEM trial is designed to provide a definitive estimate of the effects of Mediterranean dietary pattern in pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes. The pragmatic nature of ESTEEM ensures the applicability of its findings into clinical practice. The findings of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international scientific meetings and congresses.