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Acute effects of an isocaloric macronutrient-matched breakfast meal containing almonds on glycemic, hormonal, and appetite responses in men with type 2 diabetes: a randomized crossover study.

Bodnaruc, A.M., D. Prud’homme, I. Giroux, 2020. Acute effects of an isocaloric macronutrient-matched breakfast meal containing almonds on glycemic, hormonal, and appetite responses in men with type 2 diabetes: a randomized crossover study. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 00: 1–10 (0000) dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2019-0559.

This randomized crossover study assessed the acute effects of almonds on postprandial glycemic, hormonal, and appetite responses in a sample of 7 men with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Participants completed 2 experimental visits during which a control (white bread, butter, cheese) and a test (white bread, almonds) meal were ingested. Energy, available carbohydrate, total lipid, and protein content were the same in both meals. Blood samples were collected in fasting state as well as 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 240 min postprandially for quantifying blood glucose, as well as insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) serum concentrations. Subjective appetite sensations were assessed using visual analog scales at the same time-points. Within this sample of participants, the test meal was found to be associated with lower postprandial glycemia and insulinemia, higher GLP-1 serum concentrations, decreased hunger and desire to eat, and increased fullness. The test meal was also associated with an increased estimated glucose metabolic clearance rate, indicating higher postprandial insulin sensitivity. Overall, results suggest that almonds’ macronutrient subtype profile could have a beneficial impact on postprandial glycemic, hormonal, and appetite responses in men with T2D. Studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to confirm these findings.

Symposium ‘understanding and managing satiety: processes and opportunities.’

G. Mandalari, 2020. Symposium ‘understanding and managing satiety: processes and opportunities.’ J Nutr Sci. 9:e42. doi: 10.1017/jns.2020.32.

This brief report summarises a framework for understanding satiety presented at the 13th European Nutrition Conference, FENS 2019 – Malnutrition in an Obese World: European Perspectives. Aspects of satiety phenotyping and role of food hedonics in satiation are considered in the context of appetite control and obesity. Almonds are evaluated for their unique composition and structure which affect their behaviour in the human gastrointestinal tract. Their role in appetite control and management of satiety has been explored.

Study protocol for a 9-month randomised controlled trial assessing the effects of almonds versus carbohydrate-rich snack foods on weight loss and weight maintenance.

S. Carter, A.M. Hill, C. Yandell, J.D. Buckley, S.-Y. Tan, G.B. Rogers, J. Childs, M. Matheson, K. Lamb, S. Ward, T.R. Stanton, F. Fraysse, A.P. Hills, A.M. Coates, 2020. Study protocol for a 9-month randomised controlled trial assessing the effects of almonds versus carbohydrate-rich snack foods on weight loss and weight maintenance. BMJ Open. 10:e036542. doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2019-036542.

Introduction: Epidemiological studies indicate an inverse association between nut consumption and body mass index (BMI). However, clinical trials evaluating the effects of nut consumption compared with a nut-free diet on adiposity have reported mixed findings with some studies reporting greater weight loss and others reporting no weight change. This paper describes the rationale and detailed protocol for a randomised controlled trial assessing whether the inclusion of almonds or carbohydrate-rich snacks in an otherwise nut-free energy-restricted diet will promote weight loss during 3 months of energy restriction and limit weight regain during 6 months of weight maintenance. Methods and analysis: One hundred and thirty-four adults aged 25-65 years with a BMI of 27.5-34.9 kg/m2 will be recruited and randomly allocated to either the almond-enriched diet (AED) (15% energy from almonds) or a nut-free control diet (NFD) (15% energy from carbohydrate-rich snack foods). Study snack foods will be provided. Weight loss will be achieved through a 30% energy restriction over 3 months, and weight maintenance will be encouraged for 6 months by increasing overall energy intake by ~120-180 kcal/day (~500-750kJ/day) as required. Food will be self-selected, based on recommendations from the study dietitian. Body composition, resting energy expenditure, total daily energy expenditure (via doubly labelled water), physical activity, appetite regulation, cardiometabolic health, gut microbiome, liver health, inflammatory factors, eating behaviours, mood and personality, functional mobility and pain, quality of life and sleep patterns will be measured throughout the 9-month trial. The effects of intervention on the outcome measures over time will be analysed using random effects mixed models, with treatment (AED or NFD) and time (baseline, 3 months and 9 months) being the between and within factors, respectively in the analysis.

Energy extraction from nuts: walnuts, almonds, pistachios.

McArthur, B., R. Mattes, 2020. Energy extraction from nuts: walnuts, almonds, pistachios. Br J Nutr. 123(4):361-371.

The bioaccessibility of fat has implications for satiety and postprandial lipidemia. The prevailing view holds that the integrity of plant cell wall structure is the primary determinant of energy and nutrient extraction from plant cells as they pass through the gastrointestinal tract. However, comparisons across nuts (walnuts, almonds, pistachios) with varying physical properties do not support this view. In this study, masticated samples of three nuts from healthy adults were exposed to a static model of gastric digestion followed by simulated intestinal digestion. Primary outcomes were particle size and lipid release at each phase of digestion. Walnuts produced a significantly larger particle size post-mastication compared to almonds. Under gastric and intestinal conditions, the particle size was larger for walnuts compared to pistachios and almonds (P<0.05). However, the masticated and digesta particle sizes were not related to the integrity of cell walls nor lipid release. The total lipid release was comparable between nuts after the in vitro intestinal phase (P>0.05). Microstructural examination showed ruptured and fissured cell walls that would allow digestion of cellular contents and this may be governed by internal cellular properties such as oil body state. Furthermore, the cell walls of walnuts tend to rupture rather than separate and as walnut tissue passes through the gastrointestinal track, lipids tend to coalesce reducing digestion efficiency.

Identifying usual food choice combinations with walnuts: Analysis of a 2005-2015 clinical trial cohort of overweight and obese adults.

Guan, V., E. Neale, L. Tapsell, Y. Probst, 2020. Identifying usual food choice combinations with walnuts: Analysis of a 2005-2015 clinical trial cohort of overweight and obese adults. Front Nutr. 7:149. doi:10.3389/fnut.2020.00149.

Consumption of nuts has been associated with a range of favorable health outcomes. Evidence is now emerging to suggest that walnuts may also play an important role in supporting the consumption of a healthy dietary pattern. However, limited studies have explored how walnuts are eaten at different meal occasions. The aim of this study was to explore the food choices in relation to walnuts at meal occasions as reported by a sample of overweight and obese adult participants of weight loss clinical trials. Baseline usual food intake data were retrospectively pooled from four food-based clinical trials (n=758). A nut-specific food composition database was applied to determine walnut consumption within the food intake data. The Apriori algorithm of association rules was used to identify food choices associated with walnuts at different meal occasions using a nested hierarchical food group classification system. The proportion of participants who were consuming walnuts was 14.5% (n=110). The median walnut intake was 5.14 (IQR 1.10 – 11.45) grams per day. A total of 128 food items containing walnuts were identified for walnut consumers. The proportion of participants who reported consuming unsalted raw walnut was 80.5% (n=103). There were no identified patterns to food choices in relation to walnut at the breakfast, lunch or dinner meal occasions. A total of 24 clusters of food choices related to walnuts were identified at others (meals). By applying a novel food composition database, the present study was able to map the precise combinations of foods associated with walnuts intakes at mealtimes using data mining. This study offers insights into the role of walnuts for the food choices of overweight adults and may support guidance and dietary behavior change strategies.

Metabolic syndrome features and excess weight were inversely associated with nut consumption after 1-year follow-up in the PREDIMED-Plus study.

Julibert, A., M. del Mar Bibiloni, L. Gallardo-Alfaro, M. Abbate, M.Á. Martínez-González, J. Salas-Salvadó, D. Corella, M. Fitó, J.A. Martínez, Á.M. Alonso-Gómez, J. Wärnberg, J. Vioque, D. Romaguera, J. Lopez-Miranda, R. Estruch, F.J. Tinahones, J. Lapetra, L. Serra-Majem, N. Cano-Ibañez, V. Martín-Sánchez, X. Pintó, J.J. Gaforio, P. Matía-Martín, J. Vidal, C. Vázquez, L. Daimiel, E. Ros, C. Sayon-Orea, N. Becerra-Tomás, I.M. Gimenez-Alba, O. Castañer, I. Abete, L. Tojal-Sierra, J. Pérez-López, L. Notario-Barandiaran, A. Colom, A. Garcia-Rios, S. Castro-Barquero, R. Bernal, J.M. Santos-Lozano, C.I. Fernández-Lázaro, P. Hernández-Alonso, C. Saiz, M.D. Zomeño, M.A. Zulet, M.C. Belló-Mora, J. Basterra-Gortari, S. Canudas, A. Goday, J.A. Tur, PREDIMED-PLUS investigators, 2020. Metabolic syndrome features and excess weight were inversely associated with nut consumption after 1-year follow-up in the PREDIMED-Plus study. J Nutr. 00:1–10.

Background: High nut consumption has been previously associated with decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) regardless of race and dietary patterns. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in nut consumption over a 1-y follow-up are associated with changes in features of MetS in a middle-aged and older Spanish population at high cardiovascular disease risk. Methods: This prospective 1-y follow-up cohort study, conducted in the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus randomized trial, included 5800 men and women (55-75 y old) with overweight/obesity [BMI (in kg/m2) ≥27 and <40] and MetS. Nut consumption (almonds, pistachios, walnuts, and other nuts) was assessed using data from a validated FFQ. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to 1 y in features of MetS [waist circumference (WC), glycemia, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure] and excess weight (body weight and BMI) according to tertiles of change in nut consumption. Secondary outcomes included changes in dietary and lifestyle characteristics. A generalized linear model was used to compare 1-y changes in features of MetS, weight, dietary intakes, and lifestyle characteristics across tertiles of change in nut consumption. Results: As nut consumption increased, between each tertile there was a significant decrease in WC, TG, systolic blood pressure, weight, and BMI (P < 0.05), and a significant increase in HDL cholesterol (only in women, P = 0.044). The interaction effect between time and group was significant for total energy intake (P < 0.001), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) (P < 0.001), and nut consumption (P < 0.001). Across tertiles of increasing nut consumption there was a significant increase in extra virgin olive oil intake and adherence to the MedDiet; change in energy intake, on the other hand, was inversely related to consumption of nuts. Conclusions: Features of MetS and excess weight were inversely associated with nut consumption after a 1-y follow-up in the PREDIMED-Plus study cohort. This trial was registered at isrctn.com as ISRCTN89898870.

Intake of Nuts or Nut Products Does Not Lead to Weight Gain, Independent of Dietary Substitution Instructions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

Guarneiri, L.L., J.A. Cooper, 2020. Intake of Nuts or Nut Products Does Not Lead to Weight Gain, Independent of Dietary Substitution Instructions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials. Adv Nutr. 00:1–18.

Several clinical interventions report that consuming nuts will not cause weight gain. However, it is unclear if the type of instructions provided for how to incorporate nuts into the diet impacts weight outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published nut-feeding trials with and without dietary substitution instructions to determine if there are changes in body weight (BW) or composition. PubMed and Web of Science were searched through 31 December 2019 for clinical trials involving the daily consumption of nuts or nut-based snacks/meals by adults (≥18 y) for >3 wk that reported BW, BMI, waist circumference (WC), or total body fat percentage (BF%). Each study was categorized by whether or not it contained dietary substitution instructions. Within these 2 categories, an aggregated mean effect size and 95% CI was produced using a fixed-effects model. Quality of studies was assessed through the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Fifty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. In studies without dietary substitution instructions, there was no change in BW [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.01 kg; 95% CI: −0.07, 0.08; I 2 = 0%] or BF% (SMD: −0.05%; 95% CI: −0.19, 0.09; I 2 = 0%). In studies with dietary substitution instructions, there was no change in BW (SMD: −0.01 kg; 95% CI: −0.11, 0.09; I 2 = 0%); however, there was a significant decrease in BF% (SMD: −0.32%; 95% CI: −0.61%, −0.03%; I 2 = 35.4%; P < 0.05). There was no change in BMI or WC for either category of studies. Nut-enriched diet interventions did not result in changes in BW, BMI, or WC in studies either with or without substitution instructions. Slight decreases in BF% may occur if substitution instructions are used, but more research is needed. Limitations included varying methodologies between included studies and the frequency of unreported outcome variables in excluded studies.

Changes in nut consumption influence long-term weight change in US men and women.

Liu, X., Y. Li, M. Guasch-Ferre, W.C. Willett, J.-P. Drouin-Chartier, S.N. Bhupathiraju, D.K. Tobias, 2019. Changes in nut consumption influence long-term weight change in US men and women. bmjnph 2019;0:1–10. doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2019-000034.

Background: Nut consumption has increased in the US but little evidence exists on the association between changes in nut consumption and weight change. We aimed to evaluate the association between changes in total consumption of nuts and intakes of different nuts (including peanuts) and long-term weight change, in three independent cohort studies. Methods and Findings: Data collected in three prospective, longitudinal cohorts among health professionals in the US were analysed. We included 27, 521 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1986 to 2010), 61,680 women (Nurses’ Health Study, 1986 to 2010), and 55,684 younger women (Nurses’ Health Study II, 1991 to 2011) who were free of chronic disease at baseline in the analyses. We investigated the association between changes in nut consumption over 4-year intervals and concurrent weight change over 20–24 years of follow-up using multivariate linear models with an unstructured correlation matrix to account for within-individual repeated measures. 21,322 individuals attained a body mass index classification of obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) at the end of follow-up. Average weight gain across the three cohorts was 0.32 kg each year. Increases in nut consumption, per 0.5 servings/ day (14 g), was significantly associated with less weight gain per 4-year interval (p<0.01 for all): −0.19 kg (95% CI -0.21 to -0.17) for total consumption of nuts, -0.37 kg (95% CI -0.45 to -0.30) for walnuts, -0.36 kg (95% CI -0.40 to -0.31) for other tree nuts, and -0.15 kg (95% CI -0.19 to -0.11) for peanuts. Increasing intakes of nuts, walnuts, and other tree nuts by 0.5 servings/day was associated with a lower risk of obesity. The multivariable adjusted RR for total nuts, walnuts, and other tree nuts was 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.99, p=0.0036), 0.85 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.89, p=0.0002), and 0.89 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.91, p<0.0001), respectively. Increasing nut consumption was also associated with a lower risk of gaining ≥2 kg or ≥5 kg (RR 0.89–0.98, p<0.01 for all). In substitution analyses, substituting 0.5 servings/day of nuts for red meat, processed meat, French fries, desserts, or potato, chips (crisps) was associated with less weight gain (p<0.05 for all). Our cohorts were largely composed of Caucasian health professionals with relatively higher socioeconomic status; thus the results may not be generalisable to other populations. Conclusion: Increasing daily consumption of nuts is associated with less long-term weight gain and a lower risk of obesity in adults. Replacing 0.5 servings/day of less healthful foods with nuts may be a simple strategy to help prevent gradual long-term weight gain and obesity.

Daily consumption of pistachios over 12 weeks improves dietary profile without increasing body weight in healthy women: A randomized controlled intervention.

Fantino, M., B. Cé., M. Fréé, F. Bellisle, 2019. Daily consumption of pistachios over 12 weeks improves dietary profile without increasing body weight in healthy women: A randomized controlled intervention. Appetite. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2019.104483.

Dietary guidelines around the world recommend the regular intake of nuts because of their nutrient contribution to the diet and reported health benefits. However, consumers are often reluctant to include nuts in their diet due to the high caloric density of nuts. In a 12-week randomized, controlled intervention, we investigated how adding a pistachio portion to the daily diet affects body weight and composition, satiety, energy and nutrient intake. Sixty healthy pre-menopausal women who did not typically consume nuts were randomly assigned to a control or an experimental groups. Experimental participants (n = 30) consumed 44 g (250 kcal) pistachios mid-morning while controls (n = 30) maintained their current eating habits for 12 weeks. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations following the pistachio portion were assessed in all participants before and after the intervention in four 2-consecutive-day test sessions (under laboratory and then free-living conditions). Body weight and composition (DXA) were unchanged in both groups after 12 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention tests showed that ad libitum intake adjusted to the pistachio portion, mostly via reduced intakes of carbohydrates and starch, in parallel with decreased hunger and increased satiety following the morning snack. Intakes of MUFA, PUFA, linoleic acid, thiamin, pyridoxine, copper, manganese, and zinc were significantly higher among women consuming the pistachio snack, in spite of compensatory adjustments in intake. In conclusion, daily intake of 44 g pistachios improved nutrient intake without affecting body weight or composition in healthy women. The additional calories provided by the pistachios induced satiety and sufficient adjustment of intake to prevent body weight changes.

A randomized controlled pilot study to assess effects of a daily pistachio (Pistacia Vera) afternoon snack on next-meal energy intake, satiety, and anthropometry in French women.

Carughi, A., F. Bellisle, A. Dougkas, A. Giboreau, M.J. Feeney, J. Higgs, 2019. A randomized controlled pilot study to assess effects of a daily pistachio (Pistacia Vera) afternoon snack on next-meal energy intake, satiety, and anthropometry in French women. Nutrients. Apr 2;11(4). pii: E767. doi: 10.3390/nu11040767.

Including nuts in the diet improves appetite control and does not lead to weight gain. However, for pistachios, evidence from randomized intervention studies is limited and there are no data on the effect of pistachios on satiety. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of daily consumption of pistachios as an afternoon snack on satiety, self-reported energy, self-reported nutrient intake, body weight, and body composition. This randomized controlled pilot study included two parallel groups of 30 healthy French women, in a free-living setting. For four weeks, groups were instructed to consume either 56 g (1318 kJ) of pistachios or 56 g of isoenergetic/equiprotein savory biscuits as an afternoon snack. Evening energy intake, changes in anthropometric measures, and daily intake of energy and selected nutrients were assessed. Visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to rate hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective consumption. Satiety effects were not different between groups, as assessed by evening energy intake or VAS scores. Consuming pistachios or biscuits had no impact on body weight. Thiamin, vitamin B6, copper, and potassium intakes were significantly higher in the pistachio group. Consuming pistachios or biscuits as an afternoon snack resulted in similar post-snack food intake and subjective feelings of satiety. A daily pistachio snack for a month did not affect body weight or composition but it did improve micronutrient intake.