Gulati, S., A. Misra, R. Tiwari, M. Sharma, R.M. Pandey, A.D. Upadhyay, H.C. Sati, 2023. Beneficial effects of premeal almond load on glucose profile on oral glucose tolerance and continuous glucose monitoring: randomized crossover trials in Asian Indians with prediabetes. European journal of clinical nutrition. 77(5):586–595. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-023-01263-1
Background: Rapid conversion from prediabetes to diabetes and frequent postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) is seen in Asian Indians. These should be the target of dietary strategies. Objectives: We hypothesized that dietary intervention of preloading major meals with almonds in participants with prediabetes will decrease overall glycemia and PPHG. Design: The study included two phases: (1) an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-based crossover randomized control study, the effect of a single premeal almond load (20 g) given before OGTT was evaluated (n = 60, 30 each period). (2) The continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS)-based study for 3 days including premeal almond load before three major meals was a free-living, open-labeled, crossover randomized control trial, where control and premeal almond load diets were compared for glycaemic control (n = 60, 30 in each period). The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (registration no. NCT04769726). Results: In the OGTT-based study phase, the overall AUC for blood glucose, serum insulin, C-peptide, and plasma glucagon post-75 g oral glucose load was significantly lower for treatment vs. control diet (p < 0.001). Specifically, with the former diet, PPHG was significantly lower (18.05% in AUC on OGTT, 24.8% at 1-h, 28.9% at 2-h post OGTT, and 10.07% during CGMS). The CGMS data showed that premeal almond load significantly improved 24-glucose variability; SD of mean glucose concentration and mean of daily differences. Daily glycaemic control improved significantly as per the following: mean 24-h blood glucose concentration (M), time spent above 7.8 mmol/L of blood glucose, together with the corresponding AUC values. Premeal almond load significantly decreased following: overall hyperglycemia (glucose AUC), PPHG, peak 24-h glycaemia, and minimum glucose level during night. Conclusion: Incorporation of 20 g of almonds, 30 min before each major meal led to a significant decrease in PPHG (as revealed in OGTT-based study phase) and also improved insulin, C-peptide, glucagon levels, and improved glucose variability and glycemic parameters on CGMS in participants with prediabetes.
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