Monagas, M., I. Garrido, R. Lebron-Aguilar, M.C. Gomez-Cordoves, A. Rybarczyk, R. Amarowicz, B.A. Bartolome, 2009. Comparative flavan-3-ol profile and antioxidant capacity of roasted peanut, hazelnut, and almond skins. J. Agric. Food Chem., 57(22):10590-10599.
In the present study, the flavan-3-ol composition and antioxidant capacity of roasted skins obtained from the industrial processing of three commonly consumed tree nuts (i.e., peanuts, hazelnuts, and almonds), as well as fractions containing low and high molecular weight (LMW and HMW) flavan-3-ols, were studied with the aim of assessing their potential as a source of flavonoids. Roasted peanut and hazelnut skins presented similar total phenolic contents, much higher than that of almond skins, but their flavan-3-ol profiles, as determined by LC-ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF MS, differed considerably. Peanut skins were low in monomeric flavan-3-ols (19%) in comparison to hazelnut (90%) and almond (89%) skins. On the other hand, polymeric flavan-3-ols in peanut and almond skins occurred as both A- and B-type proanthocyanidins, but in peanuts the A forms (up to DP12) were predominant, whereas in almonds the B forms (up to DP8) were more abundant. In contrast, hazelnuts were mainly constituted by B-type proanthocyanidins (up to DP9). The antioxidant capacity as determined by various methods (i.e., total antioxidant capacity, ORAC, DPPH test, and reducing power) was higher for whole extracts from roasted hazelnut and peanut skins than for almond skins; however, the antioxidant capacities of the HMW fraction of the three types of nut skins were equivalent despite their different compositions and DPs. Nevertheless, the large variation in flavan-3-ol concentration, structural composition, type of interflavan linkage, and DP found among the three types of nut skins suggests large difference in their expected in vivo biological activities.
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