Sabaté, J., M. Wien, 2013. Consumption of nuts in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Curr Nutr Rep. 2:258–266.
The leading cause of morbidity and mortality in highly developed and low- and middle-income nations is cardiovascular disease (CVD). The establishment of healthy dietary patterns is one of the cornerstones of CVD prevention, and nuts have emerged as favorable components of dietary patterns associated with reducing the CVD epidemic. The etiological connection between nuts for the prevention of CVD is based upon several lines of evidence. First, nuts are nutrient-dense whole foods that contain a distinctive mix of macronutrients, specific micronutrients and non-nutrients that have been associated with cardioprotection. Second, numerous human feeding trials have demonstrated that nut intake improves the serum lipid profile, reduces oxidation and inflammation, and improves vascular reactivity. Third, nut consumption is consistently associated with a reduced risk of CVD in many epidemiological studies. Lastly, a recent large randomized clinical trial conducted in Spain demonstrated that consuming mixed nuts daily lowers CVD risk by 30%.