Zhanga, Y., C. Liua, M. Sua, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe, 2018. Eﬀect of phenolics on amandin immunoreactivity. Food Science and Technology. 98:515-523.
Amandin immunoreactivity was assessed using monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4C10-based immunoassays: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot, and dot blot. Nonpareil almond soluble proteins mixed with equal amounts of select phenolic compounds were incubated at room temperature (RT, 22°C) or heated at 100°C for 1h. As revealed by ELISA, only incubation with tea tannins had a measurable eﬀect on amandin immunoreactivity at RT. Incubation with tannic acid, tannin, ellagic acid, tea tannin, and walnut tannin at 100°C for 1h stabilized amandin immunoreactivity. Nonpareil whole almond ﬂour mixed with ellagic acid or grape seed tannins (each at 1 and 2%; w/w) was subjected to autoclaving (121°C, 15 psi; 5, 30min); blanching (100°C, 3, 10 min); microwaving (500 W, 1, 3min); and roasting (140°C, 170°C, 177°C for 30, 20, and 12min; respectively). In addition, Nonpareil whole almond ﬂour mixed with ellagic acid or grapeseed tannins (each at 1 and 2%; w/w),in presence of sugar (5% and 20%,w/w) or corn syrup (5% and 20%, w/w), was also subjected to roasting at 170°C for 20min. ELISA results suggested that moist heat (autoclaving and blanching) was the most eﬀective in reducing the mAb 4C10 detectable amandin immunoreactivity.