Wall, M.M., 2010. Functional lipid characteristics, oxidative stability, and antioxidant activity of macadamia nut (Macadamia integrifolia) cultivars. Food Chemistry. 121:1103–1108.
Phytochemical compounds (tocopherols, tocotrienols, and squalene) were measured in seven macadamia cultivars harvested from four locations on Hawaii island to establish whether these compounds enhance the oxidative stability of roasted kernels. Cultivars that had the greatest oxidative stability also had high total lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity. Tocopherols [delta (δ), gamma (γ), alpha (α)] were not detected in most macadamia nut samples, but macadamia kernels contained significant amounts of tocotrienols (31–92 µg/g oil) and squalene (72–171 µg/g oil) for all cultivars tested. This is the first report of variation for three tocotrienol homologs (δ-, γ-, α-T3) and total antioxidant capacity in macadamia nut cultivars. No statistical correlations were found between oxidative stability and tocopherol, tocotrienol, and squalene concentrations. However, two cultivars (HAES 294 and HAES 835) were identified with superior oxidative stability, suggesting that the kernel quality of these cultivars is more stable during storage.