Wang, K., D. Qian, Y. Hu, Y. Cheng, S. Ge, Y. Yao, 2022. Nut consumption and effects on chronic kidney disease and mortality in the United States. Am. J. Nephrol. 53(6):503–512. https://doi.org/10.1159/000524382
Background: Nuts have been found to have beneficial effects on some diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, in several studies. However, there are few studies to show the effects of nuts on chronic kidney disease (CKD). Thus, we conducted this study to examine the association between the consumption frequency of nuts and the prevalence and mortality of CKD among adults in the USA. Methods: We analyzed data from 6,072 individuals (aged ≥20 years) who participated in the NHANES 2003-2006 following the scheduled procedure. Data on death were provided by the CDC. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between nut consumption frequency and the prevalence of CKD. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between nut consumption frequency and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in the CKD and non-CKD populations. Results: Consuming nuts 1-6 times per week was associated with a lower prevalence of CKD (model 3: OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.49-0.91). In addition, higher nut consumption was significantly associated with lower all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the non-CKD population. For the CKD population, a consistently significant inverse association could be seen between consuming nuts 1-6 per week and all-cause mortality (model 3: HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47-0.86). No groups showed a significant difference in cardiovascular mortality compared with the reference in the full model. Conclusion: We recommend the CKD population to have an adequate intake of nuts 1-6 times per week, while the consumption frequency can be more flexible for the non-CKD. Further prospective studies should be conducted to confirm this conclusion.
previous abstractImpact of dietary walnuts, a nutraceutical option, on circulating markers of metabolic dysregulation in a rodent cachectic tumor model.