Kaviani, S., C.M. Taylor, J.L. Stevenson, J.A. Cooper, C.M. Paton, 2019. A 7-day high-PUFA diet reduces angiopoietin-like protein 3 and 8 responses and postprandial triglyceride levels in healthy females but not males: a randomized control trial. BMC Nutrition. 5:1 doi.org/10.1186/s40795-018-0262-7.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have beneficial effects on hypertriglyceridemia although their effect on angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs), specifically ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4 and ANGPTL8 is unknown. Objective: To determine whether a high-PUFA diet improves postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels through reducing ANGPTL responses following high saturated fat (SFA) meals. Methods: Twenty-six adults were randomized into a PUFA diet (n = 16) or a control diet group (n = 10). Participants completed a pre-diet visit (v1) where they were given two SFA-rich, high-fat meals. Blood draws were taken at fasting and every 2 h postprandially for a total of 8 h. After v1, participants completed a 7d diet of the same macronutrient proportions (50% carbohydrate, 35% fat, 15% protein) but with different fatty acid (FA) compositions (PUFA = 21% of total energy from PUFAs vs. Control = 7% of total energy from PUFA). All participants then completed the post-diet visit (v2) identical to v1. Results: In the PUFA group, females, but not males, reduced TG concentrations (Area under the curve (AUC): 141.2 ± 18.7 vs. 80.7 ± 6.5 mg/dL/h, p = 0.01, for v1 vs. v2, respectively). Fasting and postprandial AUC levels of ANGPTL3 and 8, but not ANGPTL4, also decreased from v1 to v2 in PUFA females, but not males. No changes from v1 to v2 were seen in either sex in the control group. Conclusions: A PUFA-rich diet improves TG levels in response to high-SFA meals with reductions in ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL8. PUFAs may be more protective against hypertriglyceridemia in females, compared to males since no diet effect was observed in males.