Fang, Z., Y. Wu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, W.C. Willett, A.H. Eliassen, B. Rosner, M. Song, L.A. Mucci, E.L. Giovannucci, 2021. Association of nut consumption with risk of total cancer and 5 specific cancers: evidence from 3 large prospective cohort studies. Amer J Clin Nutr. 114(6):1925–1935. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab295
Background: The associations between nut consumption and cancer risk have not been extensively investigated. Objectives: We aimed to examine the associations between nut consumption, especially specific types of nuts (peanut, tree nut, walnut, and tree nut other than walnut), and cancer risk. Methods: Nut consumption was assessed by FFQ at baseline and updated every 2–4 y in the Nurses’ Health Study (1980– 2014), the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991–2015), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986–2018). We examined the associations between the intake of total and specific types of nuts and risk of total cancer and common cancers, including lung, colorectal, breast, bladder, and aggressive prostate cancer. Cox proportional hazards models were used to obtain the HRs and 95% CIs in each cohort as well as pooled. Results: During 5,873,671 person-years of follow-up in 180,832 women and 45,560 men, we documented 44,561 incident cancer cases. As compared with nonconsumers, the pooled multivariable HRs of total nut consumption for ≥5 times/wk were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.04; P-trend = 0.54) for total cancer, 0.88 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.04; P-trend = 0.18) for lung cancer, 1.07 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.26; P-trend = 0.89) for colorectal cancer, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.14; P-trend = 0.65) for bladder cancer, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.08; Ptrend = 0.36) for breast cancer, and 1.18 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.51; Ptrend = 0.52) for aggressive prostate cancer Conclusions: In 3 large prospective cohorts, frequent nut consumption was not associated with risk of total cancer and common individual cancers.