Hernández‑Alonso, P., S. Giardina, J. Salas‑Salvadó, P. Arcelin, M. Bulló, 2016. Chronic pistachio intake modulates circulating microRNAs related to glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in prediabetic subjects. Eur. J. Nutr. doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1262-5.
Purpose: To assess the effects of a pistachio-enriched diet on the profile of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) related to glucose metabolism and insulin resistance (IR). Methods: Randomized crossover clinical trial in 49 subjects with prediabetes was performed. Subjects consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50 % carbohydrates, 33 % fat, including 57 g/day of pistachios) and an isocaloric control diet (CD, 55 % carbohydrates and 30 % fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week washout period. The plasma profile of a set of seven predefined miRNAs related to glucose and insulin metabolism was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results: After the PD period, subjects have shown significant lower circulating levels of miR-192 and miR-375 compared to CD period, whereas miR-21 nonsignificantly increased after PD compared with CD (47 vs. 2 %, P = 0.092). Interestingly, changes in circulating miR-192 and miR-375 were positively correlated with plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusion: Chronic pistachio consumption positively modulates the expression of some miRNA previously implicated on insulin sensitivity.