Zhao, G., T.D. Etherton, K.R. Martin, S.G. West, P.J. Gillies, P.M. Kris-Etherton, 2004. Dietary α-linolenic acid reduced inflammatory and lipid cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic men and women. J. Nutr. 134:2991-97.
α-Linolenic acid (ALA) reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, possibly by favorably changing vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Inflammatory markers and lipids and lipoproteins were assessed in hypercholesterolemic subjects (n=23) fed 2 diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol, and high in PUFA varying in ALA (ALA Diet) and linoleic acid (LA Diet) compared with an average American diet (AAD). The ALA Diet provided 17% energy from PUFA (10.5% LA; 6.5% ALA); the LA Diet provided 16.4% energy from PUFA (12.6% LA; 3.6% ALA); and the AAD provided 8.7% energy from PUFA (7.7% LA; 0.8% ALA). The ALA Diet decreased C-reactive protein (CRP, P < 0.01), whereas the LA Diet tended to decrease CRP (P = 0.08). Although the 2 high-PUFA diets similarly decreased intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 vs. AAD (-19.1% by the ALA Diet, P < 0.01; -11.0% by the LA Diet, P < 0.01), the ALA Diet decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, -15.6% vs. -3.1%, P < 0.01) and E-selectin (-14.6% vs. -8.1%, P < 0.01) more than the LA Diet. Changes in CRP and VCAM-1 were inversely associated with changes in serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (r = -0.496, P = 0.016; r = -0.418, P = 0.047), or EPA plus docosapentaenoic acid (r = -0.409, P = 0.053; r = -0.357, P= 0.091) after subjects consumed the ALA Diet. The 2 high-PUFA diets decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides similarly (P < 0.05); the ALA Diet decreased HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI compared with the AAD (P < 0.05). ALA appears to decrease CVD risk by inhibiting vascular inflammation and endothelial activation beyond its lipid-lowering effects.