Zhao, G., T.D. Etherton, K.R. Martin, P.J. Gillies, S.G. West, P.M. Kris-Etherton, 2007. Dietary α-linolenic acid inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 85:385-91.
Background: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. We previously reported that a diet high in α-linolenic acid (ALA) reduces lipid and inflammatory cardiovascular disease risk factors in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of a diet high in ALA on serum proinflammatory cytokine concentrations and cytokine production by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from subjects fed the experimental diets. Design: A randomized, controlled, 3-diet, 3-period crossover study design was used. Hypercholesterolemic subjects (n = 23) were assigned to 3 experimental diets: a diet high in ALA (ALA diet; 6.5% of energy), a diet high in linoleic acid (LA diet; 12.6% of energy), and an average American diet (AAD) for 6 wk. Serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations and the production of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α by PBMCs were measured. Results: IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α production by PBMCs and serum TNF-α concentrations were lower (P < 0.05 and P < 0.08, respectively) with the ALA diet than with the LA diet or AAD. PBMC production of TNF-α was inversely correlated with ALA (r = – 0.402, P = 0.07) and with eicosapentaenoic acid (r = – 0.476, P = 0.03) concentrations in PBMC lipids with the ALA diet. Changes in serum ALA were inversely correlated with changes in TNF-α produced by PBMCs (r = – 0.423, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Increased intakes of dietary ALA elicit anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α production in cultured PBMCs. Changes in PBMC ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid (derived from dietary ALA) are associated with beneficial changes in TNF-α release. Thus, the cardioprotective effects of ALA are mediated in part by a reduction in the production of inflammatory cytokines.