An, J.M., E.H. Kim, H. Lee, H.J. Lee, K.B. Hahm, 2020. Dietary walnut as food factor to rescue from NSAID-induced gastrointestinal mucosal damages. Arch Biochem Biophys. 689:108466. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2020.108466. Epub 2020 Jun 23.
Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf-2) is transcription factor implicated in the antioxidant response element-mediated induction of endogenous antioxidant enzyme such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamatecysteine ligase, and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1, among which HO-1 is an enzyme catalyzing the degradation of heme.producing biliverdin, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide. In the stomach, as much as regulating gastric acid secretions, well-coordinated establishment of defense system stands for maintaining gastric integrity. In previous study, author et al. for the first time discovered HO-1 induction was critical in affording faithful gastric defense against various irritants including Helicobacter pylori infection, stress, alcohol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aspirin, and toxic bile acids. In this review article, we can add the novel evidence that dietary walnut intake can be reliable way to rescue from NSAIDs-induced gastrointestinal damages via the induction of HO-1 transcribed with Nrf-2 through specific inactivation of Keap-1. From molecular exploration to translational animal model of indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal damages, significant induction of HO-1 contributed to rescuing from damages. In addition to HO-1 induction action relevant to walnut, we added the description the general actions of walnut extracts or dietary intake of walnut regarding cytoprotection and why we have focused on to NSAID damages.