Grace, M.H., Warlick, C.W., Neff, S.A., Lila, M.A. 2014. Efficient preparative isolation and identification of walnut bioactive components using high-speed counter-current chromatography and LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS. Food Chem. 158:229-38.
Preparative isolation of complex mixtures of compounds from walnut polar extracts was established by a combination of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF-MS). Compounds were isolated after a solvent optimization selection based on solute distribution in a biphasic solvent system. Isolation was achieved through one or two successive HSCCC runs, and final purification on Sephadex LH-20. Isolated compounds included ellagitannins, gallic acid, dicarboxylic acid glucosides, hydrojuglone glucoside, catechin, procyanidin B2, and megasterone glucosides. Praecoxin D was isolated for the first time from walnut, while praecoxin A methyl ester (5) and glansreginin A n-butyl ester (14) are newly identified compounds. The purity and identity of isolated compounds were confirmed by NMR and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. These results provided a foundation for in depth characterization of walnut compounds and offered an efficient strategy for isolation of potentially health-relevant phytochemicals from walnuts.