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Hunger and satiety responses to high-fat meals after a high-polyunsaturated fat diet: A randomized trial.

Stevenson, J.L., C.M. Paton, J.A. Cooper, 2017. Hunger and satiety responses to high-fat meals after a high-polyunsaturated fat diet: A randomized trial. Nutrition. 41:1-10.

Objective Previous studies have shown that polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) elicit a greater response in satiety after a single-meal challenge compared with other types of fats. The long-term effects of PUFAs on satiety, however, remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine subjective and physiological hunger and satiety responses to high-fat (HF) meals before and after a 7-d PUFA-rich diet. Methods Twenty-six, healthy weight (body mass index 18–24.9 kg/m2), sedentary adults were randomly assigned to either a 7-d PUFA-rich diet (n = 8 men and n = 8 women) or a 7-d control diet (n = 5 men and n = 5 women). After a 3-d lead-in diet, participants reported for the baseline visit where anthropometrics, fasting visual analog scale (VAS) measurements, and a fasting blood sample were collected. Then, two HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Postprandial blood draws and VAS measures were collected approximately every 30 min for 4 h after each meal, for a total of 8 h. Results From pre- to post-PUFA–rich diet, there was a decrease in fasting ghrelin (P < 0.05) and an increase in fasting peptide YY (PYY; P < 0.05); however, there were no changes in fasting insulin or leptin concentrations. The postprandial response for PYY was higher after the PUFA-rich diet visit compared to baseline (P < 0.01). However, there were no differences in the postprandial response for ghrelin, insulin, leptin, or VAS measures from pre- to post-diet in either the PUFA-rich diet or control (ns). Conclusion A PUFA-rich diet consumed for 7 d favorably altered fasting and postprandial physiological markers of hunger and satiety; yet, did not alter subjective ratings of hunger or fullness.