Njike VY, Yarandi N, Petraro P, Ayettey RG, Treu JA, Katz DL, 2016. Inclusion of walnut in the diets of adults at risk for type 2 diabetes and their dietary pattern changes: a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 4(1):e000293.
Abstract: Background: In our recently published study, including walnuts in the diets of adults with prediabetes led to overall improvement in diet quality. This report adds to those study findings by examining the food groups displaced during walnut inclusion in the diets of those adults with prediabetes. Methods: Randomized, controlled, modified Latin square parallel design with 2 treatment arms. The 112 participants (31 men, 81 women) were randomly assigned to a diet with or without dietary counseling to regulate calorie intake in a 1:1 ratio. Within each treatment arm, participants were further randomized to 1 of 2 sequence permutations to receive a walnut included diet with 56 g (366 kcal) of walnuts per day and a walnut-excluded diet. Participants in the calorie regulated arm received advice from a dietitian to preserve an isocaloric condition while including walnuts. We analyzed the 12 components of the 2010 Healthy Eating Index to examine dietary pattern changes of study participants. Results: Seafood and plant protein foods intake significantly increased with walnut inclusion, compared with their exclusion (2.14±2.06 vs −0.49±2.33; p=0.003). The ingestion of healthful fatty acids also significantly increased with walnut inclusion, compared with their exclusion (1.43±4.53 vs −1.76±4.80; p=0.02). Dairy ingestion increased with walnut inclusion in the calorie-regulated phase, compared with walnut inclusion without calorie regulation (1.06±4.42 vs −2.15±3.64; p=0.02). Conclusions: Our data suggest that walnut inclusion in the diets of adults at risk for diabetes led to an increase in intake of other healthful foods.