Julibert, A., M. del Mar Bibiloni, L. Gallardo-Alfaro, M. Abbate, M.Á. Martínez-González, J. Salas-Salvadó, D. Corella, M. Fitó, J.A. Martínez, Á.M. Alonso-Gómez, J. Wärnberg, J. Vioque, D. Romaguera, J. Lopez-Miranda, R. Estruch, F.J. Tinahones, J. Lapetra, L. Serra-Majem, N. Cano-Ibañez, V. Martín-Sánchez, X. Pintó, J.J. Gaforio, P. Matía-Martín, J. Vidal, C. Vázquez, L. Daimiel, E. Ros, C. Sayon-Orea, N. Becerra-Tomás, I.M. Gimenez-Alba, O. Castañer, I. Abete, L. Tojal-Sierra, J. Pérez-López, L. Notario-Barandiaran, A. Colom, A. Garcia-Rios, S. Castro-Barquero, R. Bernal, J.M. Santos-Lozano, C.I. Fernández-Lázaro, P. Hernández-Alonso, C. Saiz, M.D. Zomeño, M.A. Zulet, M.C. Belló-Mora, J. Basterra-Gortari, S. Canudas, A. Goday, J.A. Tur, PREDIMED-PLUS investigators, 2020. Metabolic syndrome features and excess weight were inversely associated with nut consumption after 1-year follow-up in the PREDIMED-Plus study. J Nutr. 00:1–10.
Background: High nut consumption has been previously associated with decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) regardless of race and dietary patterns. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in nut consumption over a 1-y follow-up are associated with changes in features of MetS in a middle-aged and older Spanish population at high cardiovascular disease risk. Methods: This prospective 1-y follow-up cohort study, conducted in the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus randomized trial, included 5800 men and women (55-75 y old) with overweight/obesity [BMI (in kg/m2) ≥27 and <40] and MetS. Nut consumption (almonds, pistachios, walnuts, and other nuts) was assessed using data from a validated FFQ. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to 1 y in features of MetS [waist circumference (WC), glycemia, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure] and excess weight (body weight and BMI) according to tertiles of change in nut consumption. Secondary outcomes included changes in dietary and lifestyle characteristics. A generalized linear model was used to compare 1-y changes in features of MetS, weight, dietary intakes, and lifestyle characteristics across tertiles of change in nut consumption. Results: As nut consumption increased, between each tertile there was a significant decrease in WC, TG, systolic blood pressure, weight, and BMI (P < 0.05), and a significant increase in HDL cholesterol (only in women, P = 0.044). The interaction effect between time and group was significant for total energy intake (P < 0.001), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) (P < 0.001), and nut consumption (P < 0.001). Across tertiles of increasing nut consumption there was a significant increase in extra virgin olive oil intake and adherence to the MedDiet; change in energy intake, on the other hand, was inversely related to consumption of nuts. Conclusions: Features of MetS and excess weight were inversely associated with nut consumption after a 1-y follow-up in the PREDIMED-Plus study cohort. This trial was registered at isrctn.com as ISRCTN89898870.
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