Clark, S., S. Allan Bock, T.J. Gaeta, B.E. Brenner, R.K. Cydulka, C.A. Camargo, on behalf of the Multicenter Airway Research Collaboration–8 Investigators, 2004. Multicenter study of emergency department visits for food allergies. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 113:347-352.
Background: Relatively little is known about the characteristics of patients who visit the emergency department (ED) for an acute allergic reaction. Although anaphylaxis guidelines suggest treatment with epinephrine, teaching about self-injectable epinephrine, and referral to an allergist, current ED management remains uncertain. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the management of food-related acute allergic reactions. Methods: The Multicenter Airway Research Collaboration performed a chart review study in 21 North American EDs. Investigators reviewed a random sample of 678 charts of patients who presented with food allergy (International Classification of Diseases–ninth revision codes 693.1, 995.0, 995.3, and 995.60-995.69). Results: Patients had an average age of 29 years; the cohort was 57% female and 40% white. A variety of foods provoked the allergic reaction, including nuts (21%), crustaceans (19%), fruit (12%), and fish (10%). Although exposure to these foods can be life threatening, only 18% of patients came to the ED by ambulance. In the ED, 72% of patients received antihistamines, 48% received systemic corticosteroids, and 16% received epinephrine; 33% received respiratory treatments such as inhaled albuterol. Among patients with severe reactions (55% of total), 24% received epinephrine. Overall, 97% of patients were discharged to home. At ED discharge, 16% of patients were prescribed self-injectable epinephrine, and 12% were referred to an allergist. Conclusions: Although guidelines suggest specific approaches for the management of acute allergic reactions, ED concordance for food allergy appears low. These findings support a new collaboration between professional organizations in allergy and emergency medicine and the development of educational programs and materials for ED patients and staff.