Baer, D.J., M. Dalton, J. Blundell, G. Finlayson, F.B. Hu, 2023. Nuts, Energy Balance and Body Weight. Nutrients. 15(5):1162. doi: 10.3390/nu15051162.
Over several decades, the health benefits of consuming nuts have been investigated, resulting in a large body of evidence that nuts can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The consumption of nuts, being a higher-fat plant food, is restricted by some in order to minimize weight gain. In this review, we discuss several factors related to energy intake from nuts, including food matrix and its impact on digestibility, and the role of nuts in regulating appetite. We review the data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies conducted to examine the relationship between nut intake and body weight or body mass index. Consistently, the evidence from RCTs and observational cohorts indicates that higher nut consumption does not cause greater weight gain; rather, nuts may be beneficial for weight control and prevention of long-term weight gain. Multiple mechanisms likely contribute to these findings, including aspects of nut composition which affect nutrient and energy availability as well as satiety signaling.