Witkowska, A.M., A. Wa´skiewicz, M.E. Zujko, D. Szczes´niewska, W. S´migielski, U. Stepaniak, A. Paja, W. Drygas, 2019. The consumption of nuts is associated with better dietary and lifestyle patterns in polish adults: Results of WOBASZ and WOBASZ II Surveys. Nutrients. 11, 1410; doi:10.3390/nu11061410.
In recent years, the concept of the health benefits of synergistic dietary patterns as opposed to individual foods or food constituents has been developed. The aim of this study was to determine whether nut consumption is associated with healthier nutrition and lifestyle. The research was based on complete data obtained during two Polish National Multi-Centre Health Examination Surveys—WOBASZ (2003–2005) and WOBASZ II (2013–2014). Of the 12,946 participants who completed dietary assessments, 299 subjects reported consuming any quantity of whole nuts. A control group of 1184 non-nut consumers from both surveys was randomly selected for the study, with age, gender, study (WOBASZ, WOBASZ II), educational level, and season-related interactions taken into account. In this study, nut consumption was associated with favorable food and lifestyle choices, excluding smoking. Better dietary quality consisted of having a higher Healthy Diet Indicator score, an increased intake of polyphenols and antioxidants, lower intake of red meat, but higher of poultry and fruit, more frequent consumption of antiatherogenic food products, and less frequent consumption of processed meats. There was also greater interest in special diets, such as weight-loss diet. In addition, nut eaters were more physically active in their leisure time. While limited by 24-h recall of nut intake and possible misclassification of nut/non-nut consumer status, this research supports the synergistic health-promoting attitudes of those who were classified as nut consumers.