Kim, Y., J.B. Keogh, P.M. Clifton, 2019. Does nut consumption reduce mortality and/or risk of cardiometabolic disease? An updated review based on meta-analyses. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 16, 4957; doi:10.3390/ijerph16244957.
Aim. We aimed to determine if nut consumption decreases mortality and/or the risk of cardiometabolic diseases based on updated meta-analyses of epidemiological and intervention studies. Methods. An updated electronic search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the Cochrane Library databases for original meta-analyses to investigate the effects of nut consumption on cardiometabolic disease in humans. Results. Seven new meta-analyses were included in this updated review. Findings similar to our previous review were observed, showing that nut consumption significantly decreased cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality (-19% to -25%; n = 4), coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality (-24% to -30%; n = 3), stroke mortality (-17% to -18%; n = 3), CVD incidence (-15% to -19 %; n = 4), CHD [or coronary artery disease (CAD)] incidence (-17% to -34%; n = 8), and stroke incidence (-10% to -11%; n = 6) comparing high with low categories of nut consumption. Fasting glucose levels (0.08 to 0.15 mmol/L; n = 6), total cholesterol (TC; 0.021 to 0.30 mmol/L; n = 10), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 0.017 to 0.26 mmol/L; n = 10) were significantly decreased with nut consumption compared with control diets. Body weight and blood pressure were not significantly affected by nut consumption. Conclusion. Nut consumption appears to exert a protective effect on cardiometabolic disease, possibly through improved concentrations of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL-C.