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Food groups in dietary prevention of Type 2 diabetes.

Basiak-Rasała, A., D. Różańska, K. Zatońska, 2019. Food groups in dietary prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 70(4):347-357.

According to the World Health Organization diabetes will be the seventh leading cause of death worldwide in 2030. Majority of diabetic patients suffer from type 2 diabetes (T2DM), which is mostly avoidable. The most important modifiable risk factors of type 2 diabetes are: overweight and obesity, improper diet, sedentary lifestyle and tobacco smoking. Even in prediabetic state, improving diet and physical activity can slow down or even stop progression to diabetes. In the view of health burden of diabetes it is essential to thoroughly investigate the risk factors and develop more specific preventive strategies. Recently published studies focus on food groups rather than individual products to assess the link between nutrition and risk of type 2 diabetes. Identifying food groups of possible beneficial and deleterious effect on the risk of type 2 diabetes could facilitate the dietary counselling. The aim of the overview is to summarize the possible association between consumption of food groups on the risk of type 2 diabetes on the basis of available literature. Observations from studies and meta-analyses indicate on an inverse association between consumption of fresh vegetables and fruit, whole grains, lean dairy, fish, nuts and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Food groups that seemed to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes are: red and processed meat, refined grains, sugar-sweetened beverages. It is important to note, that no individual nutrients, but diverse dietary pattern, composed of every recommended food group in adequate amounts can contribute to healthy lifestyle and T2DM prevention.